By Ted Gioia

In the opening pages of 1Q84, Aomame is rushing to
make an appointment.  Her taxi is stuck in a traffic
jam on a Tokyo expressway.  The driver explains
that her only chance to get to her meeting on time is to
leave the car and climb down an emergency staircase
by the side of the motorway.  From there, she can take
a subway to her destination.   

Aomame follows his advice, but her trip down the
dilapidated steps turns into a more momentous
journey than she could have anticipated. It brings her
to an alternative universe—a
strange, transformed Tokyo
with a different history and
unfamiliar laws.  The most
distinguishing characteristic:
a second moon in the sky, a
green and misshapen com-
panion to the familiar orb
in the heavens.  Forced to
confront this strange state
of affairs, Aomame names her
new world 1Q84—a variant
of the 1984 she left behind in the taxi, as well as a nod
of the hat at a famous novel by George Orwell.  "Q is
for 'question mark'," she tells herself, "a world that
bears a question….The air has changed.  The scene
has changed. I have to adapt to this world-with-a-
question-mark as soon as I can."

The Wind-Up Bird Chronicle by Haruki Murakami
Kafka on the Shore by Haruki Murakami
Norwegian Wood by Haruki Murakami
After Dark by Haruki Murakami
A Wild Sheep Chase by Haruki Murakami

Murakami develops this story over the course of
chapters that alternate with interludes from a different
narrative—an account of an aspiring writer named
Tengo Kawana, who has undertaken to revise a bizarre
novella by a seventeen-year-old girl.  The manuscript,
Air Chyrsalis, is an apparent work of magical
realism about a strange world, populated by "little
people," whose most distinguishing characteristic is
—yes, you guessed it—a second moon in the sky.    

These two narratives eventually converge and overlap.  
Along the way, Murakami periodically sprinkles
additional elements of the mystical and fantastic into
his narrative.  Readers encounter a pregnancy without
intercourse, a man who can be in two places at the
same time, people hatched out of cocoons, each of
these oddities presented—as is typical with this
author—without the slightest attempt at logical
explanation or scientific rationale.  Murakami is more
interested in the mystery than in its solution, and like
a stage magician aims to astonish rather than inform.

But don’t be misled by my list of fantastical elements
in this novel.  Murakami adheres to intense realism
and plausibility throughout most of this novel.  If you
peel away the magical and inexplicable aspects at play
here, you are left with a intense crime thriller….and a
touching romance….and a coming-of-age story… as
well as a philosophical novel about religious belief and
the conflict between secular and spiritual values in
daily life.   The marvel of
1Q84 may, ultimately, have
less to do with "little people" and multiple moons,
and more with Murakami's ability to put so many
disparate elements into this book, and yet make them

Aomame's urgent appointment, we soon learn, is to
meet a man she's never seen before, and murder him
with a deadly poison.  She is working with a wealthy
dowager to identify and exact revenge on men who
have committed extreme acts of domestic abuse.  
Aomame is a tough operator—there is more than a
small dose of Lisbeth Salander in her—skilled in
martial arts and capable of surprising ruthlessness in
pursuit of her goals.  Yet she has a tender spot in her
heart for the love of her life—Tengo Kawana, the
ghost writer whose story fills the alternate chapters in
1Q84—even though she hasn't seen him for 20 years,
and their last meeting took place when both were ten
years old.   

Tengo also has a secret passion for Aomame, kindled
in his heart over the last two decades.  But he too is
caught up in a dangerous drama.  His work in
completing and publishing the novel
Air Chrysalis has
irritated a powerful religious cult, whose leaders
believe that the book has released vital secrets into the
public domain.  Tengo gradually realizes that the
magical environment he described in the novel might
be all too real, and that the fairy-like "little people"
described in Air Chrysalis may have become his ardent

Those who have read Murakami's previous novels
will be familiar with the strange sense of isolation and
anomie that often surrounds his major characters—
who invariably find themselves in the bottom of a well
or in a deep hole or some other strange, secluded
place.  In
1Q84, Murakami takes this stylistic quirk to
an extreme.  Every one of the key characters in this
novel ends up in hiding or seclusion at some point in
the narrative.  Some stay inside an apartment and
refuse to answer when anyone comes knocking at the
door.  Others are (take your choice): (1) held captive
in a small room, (2) in a coma, (3) hiding out on a
surveillance mission, (4) isolated in a darkened
chamber to avoid sunlight, (5) inaccessible in a
religious retreat, (5) locked in a storage area with a
dead goat…and so on and so forth.  Much of the
distinctive flavor of Murakami's book comes from the
cumulative impact of these quasi-solipsistic character
quirks and plot twists.  Even in the midst of densely
populated Tokyo, with its hustle and bustle, the actors
1Q84 seem enclosed in a profound, unbridgeable
psychological space.  And though Murakami has a
fondness for dream sequences—a narrative device
that I usually dislike—he achieves something even
more striking by imparting a quality of a feverish
night delusion even to his characters' waking hours.  

The end result is one of the strangest novels I have
read in recent years, yet also one of the most
captivating.   I have
elsewhere suggested that a leading
movement in contemporary fiction—indeed, perhaps
the most salient trend in the novel of the new
millennium—has been to reconceptualize our sense of
reality.   Where earlier cutting-edge authors
experimented with phrases and sentence structures,
seeking liberation through language, many of today's
most interesting writers don’t try to alter syntax but
tinker with our very understanding of the world itself.   
Murakami is one of the leaders of this movement—
along with writers such as Jonathan Lethem, Jennifer
Egan, Mark Z. Danielewski, David Mitchell, David
Foster Wallace, Michael Chabon, and others.  In
1Q84, he makes this all the more clear, further
enhancing his already lofty reputation, and delivering
a novel as unsettling and unique as the alternate world
it describes.
by Haruki Murakami
Click on image to purchase
The Year
(click here)
conceptual fiction
Exploring the Non-Realist Tradition in Fiction
Welcome to my year of magical
reading.  Each week during the
course of 2012,  I will explore an
important work of fiction that
incorporates elements of magic,
fantasy or the surreal.  My choices
will cross conventional boundary
lines of genre, style and historical
period—indeed, one of my intentions
in this project is to show how the
conventional labels applied to these
works have become constraining,
deadening and misleading.

In its earliest days, storytelling almost
always partook of the magical. Only
in recent years have we segregated
works arising from this venerable
tradition into publishing industry
categories such as "magical realism"
or "paranormal" or "fantasy" or some
other 'genre' pigeonhole. These
labels are not without their value, but
too often they have blinded us to the
rich and multidimensional heritage
beyond category that these works

This larger heritage is mimicked in
our individual lives: most of us first
experienced the joys of narrative
fiction through stories of myth and
magic, the fanciful and
phantasmagorical; but only a very
few retain into adulthood this sense
of the kind of enchantment possible
only through storytelling.  As such,
revisiting this stream of fiction from a
mature, literate perspective both
broadens our horizons and allows us
to recapture some of that magic in
our imaginative lives.

The Year of Magical Reading:

Week 1:
Midnight's Children by
Salman Rushdie

Week 2:  The House of the Spirits by
Isabel Allende

Week 3:  The Witches of Eastwick
John Updike

Week 4:  Magic for Beginners by
Kelly Link

Week 5:  The Tin Drum by Günter

Week 6:  The Golden Ass by

Week 7:  The Tiger's Wife by Téa

Week 8:  One Hundred Years of
Solitude  by Gabriel García Márquez

Week 9:  The Book of Laughter and
Forgetting by Milan Kundera

Week 10: Gargantua and Pantagruel
François Rabelais

Week 11: The Famished Road by
Ben Okri

Week 12: Like Water for Chocolate
Laura Esquivel

Week 13: Winter's Tale by Mark

Week 14: Dhalgren by Samuel R.

Week 15:  Johnathan Strange & Mr.
Norrell by Susanna Clarke

Week 16:  The Master and
Margarita by Mikhail Bulgakov

Week 17:  Dangerous Laughter by
Steven Millhauser

Week 18:  Conjure Wife by Fritz

Week 19:  1Q84 by Haruki Murakami

Week 20:  The Hobbit by J.R.R.

Week 21:  Aura by Carlos Fuentes

Week 22:  Dr. Faustus by Thomas

Week 23:  Orlando by Virginia Woolf

Week 24:  Little, Big by John Crowley

Week 25:  The White Hotel by D.M.

Week 26:  Neverwhere by Neil

Week 27:  Alice's Adventures in
Wonderland by Lewis Carroll

Week 28:  Fifth Business by
Robertson Davies

Week 29:  The Kingdom of This
World by Alejo Carpentier

Week 30:  The Bear Comes Home
by R
afi Zabor

Week 31:  The Color of Magic by
Terry Pratchett

Week 32:  Ficciones by Jorge Luis

Week 33:  Beloved by Toni Morrison

Week 34:  Dona Flor and Her Two
Husbands by Jorge Amado

Week 35:  Hard-Boiled Wonderland
and the End of the World by Haruki

Week 36:  What Dreams May Come
by Richard Matheson

Week 37:  Practical Magic by Alice

Week 38:  Blindess by José

Week 39:  The Fortress of Solitude
by J
onathan Lethem

Week 40:  The Magicians by Lev

Week 41:  Suddenly, A Knock at the
Door by Etgar Keret

Week 42:  Cloudstreet by Tim Winton

Week 43:  The Obscene Bird of
NIght by José Donoso

Week 44:  The Fifty Year Sword by
Mark Z. Danielewski

Week 45:  Gulliver's Travels by
Jonathan Swift

Week 46:  Harry Potter and the
Sorcerer's Stone by J.K. Rowling

Week 47:  The End of the Affair by
Graham Greene

Week 48:  The Chronicles of Narnia
by C
.S. Lewis

Week 49:  Hieroglyphic Tales by
Horace Walpole

Week 50:  The View from the
Seventh Layer by Kevin Brockmeier

Week 51:  Gods Without Men by
Hari Kunzru

Week 52:  At Swim-Two-Birds by
Flann O'Brien
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Conceptual Fiction:
A Reading List
(with links to essays on each work)

Home Page

Abbott, Edwin A.

Adams, Douglas
The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy

Aldiss, Brian
Barefoot in the Head

Aldiss, Brian

Aldiss, Brian
Report on Probability A

Allende, Isabel
The House of the Spirits

Amado, Jorge
Dona Flor and Her Two Husbands

Amis, Martin
Time's Arrow

The Golden Ass

Asimov, Isaac
The Foundation Trilogy

Asimov, Isaac
I, Robot

Atwood, Margaret
The Handmaid's Tale

Banks, Iain M.
The State of the Art

Ballard, J.G.
The Atrocity Exhibition

Ballard, J.G.

Ballard, J.G.
The Crystal World

Ballard, J.G.
The Drowned World

Barth, John
Giles Goat-Boy

Bester, Alfred
The Demolished Man

Blish, James
A Case of Conscience

Borges, Jorge Luis

Bradbury, Ray
Dandelion Wine

Bradbury, Ray
Fahrenheit 451

Bradbury, Ray
The Illustrated Man

Bradbury, Ray
The Martian Chronicles

Bradbury, Ray
Something Wicked This Way Comes

Brockmeier, Kevin
The View from the Seventh Layer

Bulgakov, Mikhail
The Master and Margarita

Bunch, David R.

Burgess, Anthony
A Clockwork Orange

Card, Orson Scott
Ender's Game

Carpentier, Alejo
The Kingdom of This World

Carroll, Lewis
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland

Chabon, Michael
The Yiddish Policemen's Union

Chiang, Ted
Stories of Your Life and Others

Clarke, Arthur C.
Childhood's End

Clarke, Arthur C.
A Fall of Moondust

Clarke, Arthur C.
2001: A Space Odyssey

Clarke, Susanna
Jonathan Strange & Mr Norrell

Crowley, John
Little, Big

Danielewski, Mark Z.
The Fifty Year Sword

Danielewski, Mark Z.
House of Leaves

Davies, Robertson
Fifth Business

Delany, Samuel R.

Delany, Samuel R.

Delany, Samuel R.
The Einstein Intersection

Delany, Samuel R.

Dick, Philip K.
Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?

Dick, Philip K.
Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said

Dick, Philip K.
The Man in the High Castle

Dick, Philip K.

Dick, Philip K.

Disch, Thomas M.
Camp Concentration

Disch, Thomas M.
The Genocides

Doctorow, Cory
Down and Out in the Magic Kingdom

Donoso, José
The Obscene Bird of Night

Ellison, Harlan (editor)
Dangerous Visions

Ellison, Harlan
I Have No Mouth & I Must Scream

Esquivel, Laura
Like Water for Chocolate

Farmer, Philip José
To Your Scattered Bodies Go

Fuentes, Carlos

Gaiman, Neil
American Gods

Gaiman, Neil

Gibson, William
Burning Chrome

Gibson, William

Grass, Günter
The Tin Drum

Greene, Graham
The End of the Affair

Grossman, Lev
The Magicians

Haldeman, Joe
The Forever War

Hall, Steven
The Raw Shark Texts

Harrison, M. John
The Centauri Device

Harrison, M. John

Heinlein, Robert
The Moon is a Harsh Mistress

Heinlein, Robert:
Stranger in a Strange Land

Heinlein, Robert
Time Enough for Love

Helprin, Mark
Winter's Tale

Herbert, Frank

Hoffman, Alice
Practical Magic

Huxley, Aldous
Brave New World

Keret, Etgar
Suddenly, A Knock at the Door

Keyes, Daniel
Flowers for Algernon

Kundera, Milan
The Book of Laughter and Forgetting

Kunzru, Hari
Gods Without Men

Lafferty, R.A.
Nine Hundred Grandmothers

Le Guin, Ursula K.
The Dispossessed

Le Guin, Ursula K.
The Lathe of Heaven

Le Guin, Ursula K.
The Left Hand of Darkness

Leiber, Fritz
The Big Time

Leiber, Fritz
Conjure Wife

Leiber, Fritz
Swords & Deviltry

Leiber, Fritz
The Wanderer

Lem, Stanislaw
His Master's Voice

Lem, Stanislaw

Lethem, Jonathan
The Fortress of Solitude

Lewis, C. S.
The Chronicles of Narnia

Link, Kelly
Magic for Beginners

Malzberg, Barry N.
Herovit's World

Mann, Thomas
Doctor Faustus

Márquez, Gabriel García
100 Years of Solitude

Markson, David
Wittgenstein's Mistress

Matheson, Richard
Hell House

Matheson, Richard
What Dreams May Come

McCarthy, Cormac
The Road

Miéville, China
Perdido Street Station

Miller, Jr., Walter M.
A Canticle for Leibowitz

Millhauser, Steven
Dangerous Laughter

Mitchell, David
Cloud Atlas

Moorcock, Michael
Behold the Man

Moorcock, Michael
The Final Programme

Morrison, Toni

Murakami, Haruki

Murakami, Haruki
Hard-Boiled Wonderland and the
End of the World

Nabokov, Vladimir
Ada, or Ardor

Niffenegger, Audrey
The Time Traveler's Wife

Niven, Larry

Noon, Jeff

Obreht, Téa
The Tiger's Wife

O'Brien, Flann
At Swim-Two-Birds

Okri, Ben
The Famished Road

Percy, Walker
Love in the Ruins

Pohl, Frederik

Pratchett, Terry
The Color of Magic

Pynchon, Thomas
Gravity's Rainbow

Rabelais, François
Gargantua and Pantagruel

Robinson, Kim Stanley
Red Mars

Rowling, J.K.
Harry Potter & the Sorcerer's Stone

Rushdie, Salman
Midnight's Children

Russ, Joanna
The Female Man

Saramago, José

Sheckley, Robert
Dimension of Miracles

Sheckley, Robert

Sheckley, Robert
Store of the Worlds

Shelley, Mary

Silverberg, Robert
Dying  Inside

Silverberg, Robert

Silverberg, Robert
The World Inside

Simak, Clifford

Simak, Clifford
The Trouble with Tycho

Smith, Cordwainer

Smith, Cordwainer
The Rediscovery of Man

Stephenson, Neal
Snow Crash

Spinrad, Norman
Bug Jack Barron

Stross, Charles

Sturgeon, Theodore
More Than Human

Sturgeon, Theodore
Some of Your Blood

Swift, Jonathan
Gulliver's Travels

Thomas, D.M.
The White Hotel

Tiptree, Jr., James
Warm Worlds and Otherwise

Tolkien, J.R.R.
The Hobbit

Updike, John
The Witches of Eastwick

Van Vogt, A.E.
The Mixed Men

Van Vogt, A.E.

Van Vogt, A.E.
The Voyage of the Space Beagle

Van Vogt, A.E.
The World of Null A

Vance, Jack

Verne, Jules
Around the Moon

Verne, Jules
From the Earth to the Moon

Verne, Jules:
Journey to the Center of the Earth

Vonnegut, Kurt
Cat's Cradle

Vonnegut, Kurt
The Sirens of Titan

Vonnegut, Kurt

Wallace, David Foster
Infinite Jest

Walpole, Horace
Hieroglyphic Tales

Wells, H.G.
The First Men in the Moon

Wells, H.G.
The Island of Dr. Moreau

Wells, H.G.
The Time Machine

Wilson, Robert Anton & Robert Shea
The Illuminatus! Trilogy

Winton, Tim

Woolf, Virginia

Zabor, Rafi
The Bear Comes Home

Zelazny, Roger
Lord of Light

Zelazny, Roger
This Immortal

Special Features
Notes on Conceptual Fiction
When Science Fiction Grew Up
Ray Bradbury: A Tribute
The Year of Magical Reading
Remembering Fritz Leiber
A Tribute to Richard Matheson
Samuel Delany's 70th birthday
The Sci-Fi of Kurt Vonnegut
Curse You, Neil Armstrong!
Robert Heinlein at 100
A.E, van Vogt Tribute
The Puzzling Case of Robert Sheckley
The Avant-Garde Sci-Fi of Brian Aldiss
Science Fiction 1958-1975: A Reading List

Links to related sites
The New Canon
Great Books Guide
Postmodern Mystery
Fractious Fiction
Ted Gioia's web site
Ted Gioia on Twitter

SF Site
Graeme's Fantasy Book Review
Los Angeles Review of Books
The Millions
Big Dumb Object
SF Novelists
More Words, Deeper Hole
The Misread City
Reviews and Responses
SF Signal
True Science Fiction
Tor blog

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