Essay by Ted Gioia

In adopting the term “conceptual fiction” to describe a
body of modern writing—which I have done in more than
fifty essays and reviews to date—I have aimed to draw
attention to an area of experimentation in contemporary
storytelling that is still poorly

These works of conceptual fiction
cut through the great divides in
criticism: divides between high-
brow and lowbrow, genre and
mainstream, popular and literary.
They represent the fruition of a
quasi-hidden alternative tradition
in modern writing, with its own
genealogy and masterworks. As
such, they deserve—but rarely
receive—a response from critics
and scholars that is sensitive to
this larger framework.

These works have their deepest roots in the often

despised—but more often merely neglected or
patronized—science fiction and fantasy books of the
middle of the 20th century. This alone explains much of
the incoherent response to this tradition, which treats half
of the defining books as hack work, and bows down
before the others—Márquez, McCarthy, Saramago,
Rushdie, Auster, Murakami, etc.—but only after isolating
them (safe from contamination) in a different section of
the library. Yet this is only part of the richness and
complexity of the conceptual fiction tradition: an even
longer lineage can be constructed, back to Verne and
Wells in the nineteenth century, even further to Swift’s
Gulliver Travels, Thomas More's Utopia, and eventually
to the earliest stirrings of conceptual fiction in myths and
folktales. In short, the tinkering with conceptions of reality
and delight in the fanciful—key qualities of these works—
are as old as storytelling itself.

David Mitchell’s
Cloud Atlas is almost a textbook
example of how this tradition is enlivening contemporary
fiction. It is an exemplar of this vital area of development
in modern writing—all the more vital because it
manages to be bold and experimental without destroying
the key elements of narrative structure, character
development and linguistic comprehensibility that earlier
progressive movements often ignored at their own peril.
The power of a book such as Cloud Atlas is amplified
because its higher level complexities don’t require the
ground floor level of the story be burnt, pillaged and
destroyed. Instead of trying to keep up with the Pynchons
and Gaddises, who only live in the penthouse, Mitchell
occupies the whole building, even the boiler room and
broom closet.

On its simplest level,
Cloud Atlas is a set of six sharply
contrasting stories, each one capable of standing alone
as a complete tale, but only revealing its full resonance
when viewed in the context of the total work. The stories
cover a wide range of territory, writing styles and
psychological perspectives. We find here a travel journal
of a pious and gullible 19th century notary; an epistolary
novella about a morally bankrupt young composer from
the 1930s; a pulp fiction conspiracy tale set during the
Gerald Ford administration; a comic tale of a vanity
publisher who finds himself confined
against his wishes in a home for the aged; a sci-fi story,

in Q&A format, about clones working in an underground
fast food restaurant; and an account of tribal warfare in a
post-apocalyptic island society.

The structure of the novel is palindromic. The five

opening sections each represent the opening of a tale
that will be concluded, in reverse order, by the five final
sections of the book. This same form is adopted by the
composer Robert Frobisher, the protagonist of the
epistolary novella, who describes it as follows:

“Spent the fortnight gone in the music room reworking

my year's fragments into a 'sextet for overlapping
soloists': piano, clarinet, 'cello, flute, oboe, and violin,
each in its own language of key, scale, and color. In the
first set, each solo is interrupted by its successor; in the
second, each interruption is recontinued, in order.
Revolutionary or gimmicky? Shan't know until it's
finished, and by then it'll be too late.”

This composition is called the “Cloud Atlas Sextet,” and

the passage above might seem to unlock the meaning of
the title of Mitchell’s novel. Yet the concept of a “cloud
atlas” appears elsewhere—for example, as a symbolic
representation of the transmigration of souls
—or in a rare recording of Frobisher’s composition that

figures as a plot elements in a separate story. The
multivalent meaning of this one element is an example of
the many prefigurings and reverberations that give depth
and suchness to this ambitious novel.

As a result, the linkages between the six narratives are

difficult, perhaps impossible, to summarize. But let me
propose a (Philip K.) Dicksian way of approaching this
interconnectivity. Imagine that the defining stories of our
lives are not rooted in reality, as many critics assume,
but in other stories. This may seem a radical notion, but
upon reflection, you can see that this is simply another
way of expressing the lineages of fiction described
above—or, for that matter,  most oral / aural storytelling
traditions. In this instance, the connection is made
explicit in Michell’s narratives for “overlapping soloists.”
Each of the five half-tales that open his novel serves as a
plot element in the succeeding story, and usually in a
surprising way.

We have thus entered the world of the “meta-narrative,”

where stories build their house of cards within the
framework of other stories. Yet, in a marked departure
from the way such meta-narratives are typically
constructed—i.e., flamboyantly with the author’s
presence constantly felt—Mitchell remains hidden from
view throughout Cloud Atlas. The writing style of each of
the sections is perfectly matched to the tale, with even
the flaws of the genre mimicked with perfect fidelity. The
novelist is clearly dealing the cards, and playing them
brilliantly, but he is about as hard to second-guess as
those poker champions on TV, with their wraparound
sunglasses, floppy hats and other accessories designed
to maintain a face of mystery to all onlookers.

On top of this intriguing structure, Mitchell superimposes

echoes of Nietzsche’s theory of eternal recurrence. You
may recall that this odd and seemingly implausible
philosophical concept proposes a universe that does not
advance chronologically, but merely repeats itself, over
and over again. This cyclical concept of history does not
presuppose any theistic doctrines, but can be made
congruent with a belief in reincarnation. Mitchell clearly
draws on this metaphysical angle, and sets in motion
story elements that imply that the characters in his six
tales may be reincarnations of each other.

Of course, none of this is presented in the blunt, point-by-

point way that I have just outlined it. Mitchell works his
changes subtly, and even at his most philosophical, he
“clouds” his points in a fog of ambiguity. He is, after all, a
storyteller and not a theoretician, and the narrative is
never dislodged by the higher order meanings. They
merely float above the action. After a lifetime of reading
novels that proclaim their “message” in heavy-handed
ways, I found this immersion in the loosely defined and
amorphous to be one of the most endearing aspects of
Mitchell’s extraordinary novel.

Then again, that might be just what one
should expect
from a cloud atlas.
Back to the home page
Cloud Atlas

by David Mitchell
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Conceptual Fiction:
A Reading List
(with links to essays on each work)

Home Page

Abbott, Edwin A.

Adams, Douglas
The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy

Aldiss, Brian
Barefoot in the Head

Aldiss, Brian

Aldiss, Brian
Report on Probability A

Allende, Isabel
The House of the Spirits

Amado, Jorge
Dona Flor and Her Two Husbands

Amis, Martin
Time's Arrow

The Golden Ass

Asimov, Isaac
The Foundation Trilogy

Asimov, Isaac
I, Robot

Atwood, Margaret
The Handmaid's Tale

Banks, Iain M.
The State of the Art

Ballard, J.G.
The Atrocity Exhibition

Ballard, J.G.

Ballard, J.G.
The Crystal World

Ballard, J.G.
The Drowned World

Barth, John
Giles Goat-Boy

Bester, Alfred
The Demolished Man

Blish, James
A Case of Conscience

Borges, Jorge Luis

Bradbury, Ray
Dandelion Wine

Bradbury, Ray
Fahrenheit 451

Bradbury, Ray
The Illustrated Man

Bradbury, Ray
The Martian Chronicles

Bradbury, Ray
Something Wicked This Way Comes

Brockmeier, Kevin
The View from the Seventh Layer

Bulgakov, Mikhail
The Master and Margarita

Bunch, David R.

Burgess, Anthony
A Clockwork Orange

Card, Orson Scott
Ender's Game

Carpentier, Alejo
The Kingdom of This World

Carroll, Lewis
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland

Chabon, Michael
The Yiddish Policemen's Union

Chiang, Ted
Stories of Your Life and Others

Clarke, Arthur C.
Childhood's End

Clarke, Arthur C.
A Fall of Moondust

Clarke, Arthur C.
2001: A Space Odyssey

Clarke, Susanna
Jonathan Strange & Mr Norrell

Crowley, John
Little, Big

Danielewski, Mark Z.
The Fifty Year Sword

Danielewski, Mark Z.
House of Leaves

Davies, Robertson
Fifth Business

Delany, Samuel R.

Delany, Samuel R.

Delany, Samuel R.
The Einstein Intersection

Delany, Samuel R.

Dick, Philip K.
Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?

Dick, Philip K.
Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said

Dick, Philip K.
The Man in the High Castle

Dick, Philip K.

Dick, Philip K.

Disch, Thomas M.
Camp Concentration

Disch, Thomas M.
The Genocides

Doctorow, Cory
Down and Out in the Magic Kingdom

Donoso, José
The Obscene Bird of Night

Ellison, Harlan (editor)
Dangerous Visions

Ellison, Harlan
I Have No Mouth & I Must Scream

Esquivel, Laura
Like Water for Chocolate

Farmer, Philip José
To Your Scattered Bodies Go

Fuentes, Carlos

Gaiman, Neil
American Gods

Gaiman, Neil

Gibson, William
Burning Chrome

Gibson, William

Grass, Günter
The Tin Drum

Greene, Graham
The End of the Affair

Grossman, Lev
The Magicians

Haldeman, Joe
The Forever War

Hall, Steven
The Raw Shark Texts

Harrison, M. John
The Centauri Device

Harrison, M. John

Heinlein, Robert
The Moon is a Harsh Mistress

Heinlein, Robert:
Stranger in a Strange Land

Heinlein, Robert
Time Enough for Love

Helprin, Mark
Winter's Tale

Herbert, Frank

Hoffman, Alice
Practical Magic

Huxley, Aldous
Brave New World

Keret, Etgar
Suddenly, A Knock at the Door

Keyes, Daniel
Flowers for Algernon

Kundera, Milan
The Book of Laughter and Forgetting

Kunzru, Hari
Gods Without Men

Lafferty, R.A.
Nine Hundred Grandmothers

Le Guin, Ursula K.
The Dispossessed

Le Guin, Ursula K.
The Lathe of Heaven

Le Guin, Ursula K.
The Left Hand of Darkness

Leiber, Fritz
The Big Time

Leiber, Fritz
Conjure Wife

Leiber, Fritz
Swords & Deviltry

Leiber, Fritz
The Wanderer

Lem, Stanislaw
His Master's Voice

Lem, Stanislaw

Lethem, Jonathan
The Fortress of Solitude

Lewis, C. S.
The Chronicles of Narnia

Link, Kelly
Magic for Beginners

Malzberg, Barry N.
Herovit's World

Mann, Thomas
Doctor Faustus

Márquez, Gabriel García
100 Years of Solitude

Markson, David
Wittgenstein's Mistress

Matheson, Richard
Hell House

Matheson, Richard
What Dreams May Come

McCarthy, Cormac
The Road

Miéville, China
Perdido Street Station

Miller, Jr., Walter M.
A Canticle for Leibowitz

Millhauser, Steven
Dangerous Laughter

Mitchell, David
Cloud Atlas

Moorcock, Michael
Behold the Man

Moorcock, Michael
The Final Programme

Morrison, Toni

Murakami, Haruki

Murakami, Haruki
Hard-Boiled Wonderland and the
End of the World

Nabokov, Vladimir
Ada, or Ardor

Niffenegger, Audrey
The Time Traveler's Wife

Niven, Larry

Noon, Jeff

Obreht, Téa
The Tiger's Wife

O'Brien, Flann
At Swim-Two-Birds

Okri, Ben
The Famished Road

Percy, Walker
Love in the Ruins

Pohl, Frederik

Pratchett, Terry
The Color of Magic

Pynchon, Thomas
Gravity's Rainbow

Rabelais, François
Gargantua and Pantagruel

Robinson, Kim Stanley
Red Mars

Rowling, J.K.
Harry Potter & the Sorcerer's Stone

Rushdie, Salman
Midnight's Children

Russ, Joanna
The Female Man

Saramago, José

Sheckley, Robert
Dimension of Miracles

Sheckley, Robert

Sheckley, Robert
Store of the Worlds

Shelley, Mary

Silverberg, Robert
Dying  Inside

Silverberg, Robert

Silverberg, Robert
The World Inside

Simak, Clifford

Simak, Clifford
The Trouble with Tycho

Smith, Cordwainer

Smith, Cordwainer
The Rediscovery of Man

Stephenson, Neal
Snow Crash

Spinrad, Norman
Bug Jack Barron

Stross, Charles

Sturgeon, Theodore
More Than Human

Sturgeon, Theodore
Some of Your Blood

Swift, Jonathan
Gulliver's Travels

Thomas, D.M.
The White Hotel

Tiptree, Jr., James
Warm Worlds and Otherwise

Tolkien, J.R.R.
The Hobbit

Updike, John
The Witches of Eastwick

Van Vogt, A.E.
The Mixed Men

Van Vogt, A.E.

Van Vogt, A.E.
The Voyage of the Space Beagle

Van Vogt, A.E.
The World of Null A

Vance, Jack

Verne, Jules
Around the Moon

Verne, Jules
From the Earth to the Moon

Verne, Jules:
Journey to the Center of the Earth

Vonnegut, Kurt
Cat's Cradle

Vonnegut, Kurt
The Sirens of Titan

Vonnegut, Kurt

Wallace, David Foster
Infinite Jest

Walpole, Horace
Hieroglyphic Tales

Wells, H.G.
The First Men in the Moon

Wells, H.G.
The Island of Dr. Moreau

Wells, H.G.
The Time Machine

Wilson, Robert Anton & Robert Shea
The Illuminatus! Trilogy

Winton, Tim

Woolf, Virginia

Zabor, Rafi
The Bear Comes Home

Zelazny, Roger
Lord of Light

Zelazny, Roger
This Immortal

Special Features
Notes on Conceptual Fiction
When Science Fiction Grew Up
Ray Bradbury: A Tribute
The Year of Magical Reading
Remembering Fritz Leiber
A Tribute to Richard Matheson
Samuel Delany's 70th birthday
The Sci-Fi of Kurt Vonnegut
Curse You, Neil Armstrong!
Robert Heinlein at 100
A.E, van Vogt Tribute
The Puzzling Case of Robert Sheckley
The Avant-Garde Sci-Fi of Brian Aldiss
Science Fiction 1958-1975: A Reading List

Links to related sites
The New Canon
Great Books Guide
Postmodern Mystery
Fractious Fiction
Ted Gioia's web site
Ted Gioia on Twitter

SF Site
Graeme's Fantasy Book Review
Los Angeles Review of Books
The Millions
Big Dumb Object
SF Novelists
More Words, Deeper Hole
The Misread City
Reviews and Responses
SF Signal
True Science Fiction
Tor blog

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